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Probability: Dice Rolling Examples
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Dice roll probability: 6 Sided Dice Example
It’s very common to find questions about dice rolling in probability and statistics. You might be asked the probability of rolling a variety of results for a 6 Sided Dice: five and a seven, a double twelve, or a double-six. While you *could* technically use a formula or two (like a combinations formula), you really have to understand each number that goes into the formula; and that’s not always simple. By far the easiest (visual) way to solve these types of problems (ones that involve finding the probability of rolling a certain combination or set of numbers) is by writing out a sample space.
Dice Roll Probability for 6 Sided Dice: Sample Spaces
A sample space is just the set of all possible results. In simple terms, you have to figure out every possibility for what might happen. With dice rolling, your sample space is going to be every possible dice roll.
Example question: What is the probability of rolling a 4 or 7 for two 6 sided dice?
In order to know what the odds are of rolling a 4 or a 7 from a set of two dice, you first need to find out all the possible combinations. You could roll a double one , or a one and a two . In fact, there are 36 possible combinations.
Dice Rolling Probability: Steps
Step 1: Write out your sample space (i.e. all of the possible results). For two dice, the 36 different possibilities are:
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
Step 2: Look at your sample space and find how many add up to 4 or 7 (because we’re looking for the probability of rolling one of those numbers). The rolls that add up to 4 or 7 are in bold:
, , , , , ,
There are 9 possible combinations.
Step 3: Take the answer from step 2, and divide it by the size of your total sample space from step 1. What I mean by the “size of your sample space” is just all of the possible combinations you listed. In this case, Step 1 had 36 possibilities, so:
9 / 36 = .25
Two (6-sided) dice roll probability table
The following table shows the probabilities for rolling a certain number with a two-dice roll. If you want the probabilities of rolling a set of numbers (e.g. a 4 and 7, or 5 and 6), add the probabilities from the table together. For example, if you wanted to know the probability of rolling a 4, or a 7:
Probability of rolling a certain number or less for two 6-sided dice.
Dice Roll Probability Tables
Probability of a certain number with a Single Die.
Probability of rolling a certain number or less with one die
Probability of rolling less than certain number with one die
Probability of rolling a certain number or more.
Probability of rolling more than a certain number (e.g. roll more than a 5).
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Dodge, Y. (2008). The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics. Springer.
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A branch of mathematics that deals with the happening of a random event is termed probability. It is used in Maths to predict how likely events are to happen.
The probability of any event can only be between 0 and 1 and it can also be written in the form of a percentage.
If we are not sure about the outcome of an event, we take help of the probabilities of certain outcomes—how likely they occur. For a proper understanding of probability we take an example as tossing a coin:
There will be two possible outcomes—heads or tails.
The probability of getting heads is half. You might already know that the probability is half/half or 50% as the event is an equally likely event and is complementary so the possibility of getting heads or tails is 50%.
Formula of Probability
Some Terms of Probability Theory
Some Probability Formulas
Addition rule: Union of two events, say A and B, then
Complementary rule: If there are two possible events of an experiment so the probability of one event will be the Complement of another event. For example – if A and B are two possible events, then
Conditional rule: When the probability of an event is given and the second is required for which first is given, then
Multiplication rule: Intersection of two other events i.e. events A and B need to occur simultaneously. Then
Find the probability of getting a number less than 5 in a single dice throw.
Question 1: Find the probability of getting a number less than 4 in a single throw of a die.
Question 2: Find the probability of getting a number more than 4 in a single throw of a die.
Question 3: Find the probability of getting a number 5 in a single throw of a die.
Question 4: What is the chance of rolling a 3 two times in a row?