Health Canada has banned artificial trans fat, making it illegal for manufacturers to add partially hydrogenated oils to foods sold in Canada. This ban is being phased in and as of September 2020 all artificially produced trans fat will be removed from the food supply.
How will this affect our food supply and our health? Heart & Stroke registered dietitian Carol Dombrow provides some answers.
What are trans fats and where are they found?
Trans fats are a type of fat found in some foods. Artificial trans fat is made when hydrogen is added to a liquid vegetable oil to make it more solid.
Trans fats can be found in commercially baked and fried foods made with vegetable shortening, such as fries and donuts. It’s also in hard stick margarine and shortening and some snack and convenience foods. When you see “partially hydrogenated oils” on the label of a processed food, that means it contains trans fats.
Small amounts of naturally occurring trans fats can be found in some foods such as dairy products, beef and lamb, and some oils.
How do they affect our health?
Trans fats can increase your risk of heart disease. They increase your “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and decrease “good” cholesterol (HDL), fostering the buildup of fatty deposits that can clog your blood vessels and lead to heart attack.
Why is a ban necessary?
The food industry was given several years to voluntarily remove trans fats from products. Although levels decreased, many foods still contained trans fats before the ban was put in place. Certain categories of foods such as baked goods, dairy-free cheeses, frosting, coffee whiteners, lard or shortening, cookies, biscuits, scones and refrigerated doughs do not meet the voluntary targets for trans fats. Some of these foods are consumed more often by children and other vulnerable populations.
Only a ban will ensure that all industrially produced trans fats are effectively removed from the Canadian food supply.
What does a healthy diet look like now?
This new measure does not alter the basic advice on eating well. A healthy, balanced diet includes:
It requires preparing foods at home as often as possible and watching portion sizes.
How does Heart & Stroke view the ban on trans fats?
Heart & Stroke sees this as a great move that will reduce the number of heart attacks in Canada and save lives.
In fact Heart & Stroke played a key role in driving this change over more than 12 years, starting as co-chair of a federal trans fats task force established in 2006 that recommended eliminating industrially produced trans fats.
The change is part of the federal government’s Healthy Eating Strategy, which is aimed at helping to make the healthier choice the easier choice for Canadians. Heart & Stroke strongly supports the strategy, which includes revisions to Canada’s Food Guide, stopping the marketing of unhealthy food and beverages to children, and improving food labelling.
Hensrud DD, Heimburger DC. Nutrition's interface with health and disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 202.
Mozaffarian D. Nutrition and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 49.
US Department of Health and Human Services; Food and Drug Administration. Trans fat. www.fda.gov/food/food-additives-petitions/trans-fat. Updated May 18, 2018. Accessed July 2, 2020.
US Department of Health and Human Services; US Department of Agriculture. 2015 - 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf. Updated December 2015. Accessed July 2, 2020.
We know research shows that reducing trans fat in the American diet helps reduce risk of heart disease, but how and why? Let's try to clear up the confusion about trans fats.
What are trans fats?
There are two broad types of trans fats found in foods: naturally-occurring and artificial trans fats. Naturally-occurring trans fats are produced in the gut of some animals and foods made from these animals (e.g., milk and meat products) may contain small quantities of these fats. Artificial trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
The primary dietary source for trans fats in processed food is “partially hydrogenated oils." Look for them on the ingredient list on food packages. In November 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made a preliminary determination that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) in human food.
Why do some companies use trans fats?
Trans fats are easy to use, inexpensive to produce and last a long time. Trans fats give foods a desirable taste and texture. Many restaurants and fast-food outlets use trans fats to deep-fry foods because oils with trans fats can be used many times in commercial fryers. Several countries (e.g., Denmark, Switzerland, and Canada) and jurisdictions (California, New York City, Baltimore, and Montgomery County, MD) have reduced or restricted the use of trans fats in food service establishments.
How do trans fats affect my health?
Trans fats raise your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and lower your good (HDL) cholesterol levels. Eating trans fats increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. It’s also associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Why did trans fats become so popular if they have such bad health effects?
Before 1990, very little was known about how trans fat can harm your health. In the 1990s, research began identifying the adverse health effects of trans fats. Based on these findings, FDA instituted labeling regulations for trans fat and consumption has decreased in the US in recent decades, however some individuals may consume high levels of trans fats based on their food choices.
Which foods contain trans fats?
Trans fats can be found in many foods – including fried foods like doughnuts, and baked goods including cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, frozen pizza, cookies, crackers, and stick margarines and other spreads. You can determine the amount of trans fats in a particular packaged food by looking at the Nutrition Facts panel. However, products can be listed as “0 grams of trans fats” if they contain 0 grams to less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving. You can also spot trans fats by reading ingredient lists and looking for the ingredients referred to as “partially hydrogenated oils.”
Are there naturally occurring trans fats?
Small amounts of trans fats occur naturally in some meat and dairy products, including beef, lamb and butterfat. There have not been sufficient studies to determine whether these naturally occurring trans fats have the same bad effects on cholesterol levels as trans fats that have been industrially manufactured.
How much trans fat can I eat a day?
The American Heart Association recommends cutting back on foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to reduce trans fat in your diet and preparing lean meats and poultry without added saturated and trans fat.
How can I limit my daily of trans fats?
Read the Nutrition Facts panel on foods you buy at the store and, when eating out, ask what kind of oil foods are cooked in. Replace the trans fats in your diet with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.
Regulating Your Intake of Saturated and Trans Fats
The American Heart Association recommends that adults who would benefit from lowering LDL cholesterol reduce their intake of trans fat and limit their consumption of saturated fat to 5 to 6% of total calories.
Here are some ways to achieve that: