Transformation is an important component of molecular genetics; studies into the process began in the 1920s when a physician named F.Griffith realized that Streptococcus pneumoniae could convert between being harmless and disease-causing.What is transformation in biology? The theory he had back then was that a “transforming principle” released by dead S.pneumoniae cells caused living cells around them to form a capsule membrane that turns the pathogen into its disease-causing form. This theory has since been expanded upon with the discovery of DNA.
So, what is the meaning of “transformation” in biology? Transformation is one of the three processes where genetic material is transferred from one microbial cell to another, the other two being conjugation and archaeal DNA transfer.
What is Transformation in Biology?
Transformation is the specific process where exogenous genetic material is directly taken up and incorporated by a cell through its cell membrane. This usually occurs when the cell is in a state of competence, which is a state where the cell can uptake exogenous material. A state of competence is typically a time-limited one caused by environmental conditions around the cell.
It can occur naturally in the environment or laboratory conditions referred to as natural competence. It can also be artificially induced by treating laboratory cultures to make cell membranes permeable to the exogenous genetic material around them.
Combining the knowledge of colony microbiology and transformation is a crucial part of molecular cloning and synthetic biology.
Uses of Transformation in the Lab
If you know why colonies are important in the study of microbiology and molecular biology and the different types of colonies, you must also understand what the transformation process is used for.
For example, molecular cloning, in which transformation plays a major part, is necessary for genome organization, recombinant protein production, creation of transgenic organisms, gene therapy, and more.
Bacterial Transformation In Biology: What is the Process?
In the lab, bacterial transformation is a four-step process. The first step begins with preparing competent cells that need to be transformed. This usually involves injecting a desired bacterial strain in a liquid medium as a starter culture and then creating a larger amount of culture. The strain is then made competent through the process of heat shock or electroporation.
Once cells are competent, they are put through another round of heat shock or electroporation in the presence of plasmid DNA. This results in the uptake of the plasmid DNA by the competent cells. The transformed cells are then cultured again to increase cell viability and efficiency of the molecular cloning process.
Lastly, when answering “what is transformation in biology” transformed cells are plated with the required resources to identify and recover the desired transformants. Then these transformants are used for other processes such as protein expression, subcloning, and plasmid isolation.
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Operations management transforms inputs (labor, capital, equipment, land, buildings, materials, and information) into outputs (goods and services) that provide added value to customers. All organizations must strive to maximize the quality of their transformation processes to meet customer needs.
WHAT IS THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS?
A transformation process is any activity or group of activities that takes one or more inputs, transforms and adds value to them, and provides outputs for customers or clients. ... Changes in the physical characteristics of materials or customers.
HOW OPERATIONS CAN BE VIEWED AS A TRANSFORMATION PROCESS?
Briefly describe how operations can be viewed as a transformation process. Operations is often defined as a transformation process. Inputs such as raw materials, labor, equipment, and capital are transformed into outputs (goods and services). Customer feedback is used to adjust the transformation process.
WHAT IS PROCESS IN OPERATION MANAGEMENT?
Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. ... Operations produce products, manage quality and creates service.
EXAMPLE OF AN OUTPUT AND INPUT OF THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
Information and materials are two examples of inputs to the transformation process. ... Inputs to the transformation process are tangible, but the outputs may be tangible or intangible. In general, operations management activities are not information and decision intensive.
WHAT IS THE MAIN OPERATION PROCESS OF THE ORGANIZATION?
Operations management (OM) is the business function responsible for managing the process of creation of goods and services. It involves planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling all the resources needed to produce a company's goods and services.
FOUR PROCESS STRATEGIES
A process or transformation strategy is an organization's approach to transforming resources into goods and services. These goods or services are organized around a specific activity or process.
Every organization will have one of the four process strategies:
a. Process focus in a factory; these processes might be departments devoted to welding, grinding, and painting. In an office the processes might be accounts payable, sales, and payroll. In a restaurant, they might be bar, grill, and bakery. The process focuses on low volume, high variety products are also called job shop. These facilities are process focus in terms of equipment, layout, and supervision.
b. Repetitive focus; falls between the product and process focus. The repetitive process is a product-oriented production process that uses modules. Modules are parts or components of a product previously manufactured or prepared, often in a continuous process. Fast-food firms are an example of repetitive process using modules.
c. Product focus, are high volume, low variety processes; also called continuous processes. Products such as light bulbs, rolls of paper, beer, and bolts are examples of product process. This type of facility requires a high fixed cost, but low costs. The reward is high facility utilization.
d. Mass customizations focus; is rapid, low-cost production that caters to constantly changing unique customer desires. This process is not only about variety; it is about making precisely what the customer wants when the customer wants it economically. Achieving mass customization is a challenge that requires sophisticated operational capabilities.
Article from QD